China – Everything you need to know about Chinese culture, etiquette, protocol, visiting, doing business and communicating in or with China.
Written by Michael Hanna © 2020
Are you prepared for 2021?
I was born in Hong Kong in 1958 and I know that there are many protocols, values and traditions that the Chinese hold close and since I still travel a lot in Asia on Feng Shui consultations and teaching I thought I would share with you common mistakes that many foreigners make whilst either visiting or doing business in or with China. China is known as a state of etiquette, custom, respect and ceremony. To understand the Chinese, some consideration of their way of life should not be ignored:
Chinese Society & Culture
The Importance of keeping Face:
Roughly translated as ‘good reputation’, ‘respect’ or ‘honour,’ one must learn the details of the concept and understand the possible impact it could have on your doing business in China and many other Asian countries.
The concept of ‘face’ roughly translates as ‘honour’, ‘good reputation’ or ‘respect’.
There are four types of ‘face’:
- Diu-mian-zi: this is when one’s actions or deeds have been exposed to people.
- Gei-mian-zi: involves the giving of face to others through showing respect.
- Liu-mian-zi: this is developed by avoiding mistakes and showing wisdom in action.
- Jiang-mian-zi: this is when face is increased through others, i.e. someone complementing you to an associate.
It is critical that you give face, save face and show face when doing business in China.
Confucianism is a system of behaviours and principles that stress the obligations of people towards one another based upon their relationship. The basic system of belief is based on five different relationships:
Ruler and subject
Husband and wife
Parents and children
Brothers and sisters
Friend and friend
Confucianism stresses duty, sincerity, loyalty, honour, respect for age and seniority. Through maintaining harmonious relations as individuals, society itself becomes stable. The founder, Confucius is a Chinese philosopher (551 ~ 479 BC) who taught morality, loyalty and strict social relationships. Confucianism especially accentuates social relationship codes between the young and the old, men and women, the royal and the common people.
- The Chinese’ Non-verbal communication speaks volumes.
- Since the Chinese strive for harmony and are group dependent, they rely on facial expression, tone of voice and posture to tell them what someone feels.
- Frowning while someone is speaking is interpreted as a sign of disagreement. Therefore, most Chinese maintain an impassive expression when speaking.
- It is considered disrespectful to stare into another person’s eyes. In crowded situations, the Chinese avoid eye contact to give themselves privacy.
General Etiquette and Protocol Guidelines:
- Normally greetings are formal and the eldest person is always greeted first.
- A good strong handshake is the most common form of greeting with foreigners with less formal greetings with a slight bow or nod of the head.
- Many older Chinese will look to the ground when greeting someone.
- Address the person by a respectful title and their surname. If they want to move to a first-name basis, they will advise you which name to use.
- The Chinese have a wonderful sense of humour.
Gift Giving Etiquette:
Generous gift-giving is a significant part of Chinese culture in the past. Nowadays in business, official policy in Chinese business culture forbids giving gifts; this gesture is considered bribery, an illegal act in this country, so if you are giving gifts to a government official please be very careful.
You may find your gift declined, although these days’ times have relaxed more and you will find that the Chinese will decline a gift three times before finally accepting, so they do not appear greedy so you will have to continue to insist. You will be expected to go through the same routine if you are offered a gift.
It is appropriate to bring a gift that is representative of your country, town or region, to a business meeting or social event. A gift should always be wrapped but please read the list below of acceptable and unacceptable gifts, this is very important. Always present the gift with both hands as a sign of courtesy and always mention that this is only a small token of appreciation. Do not expect your gift to be opened in your presence.
A very auspicious gift to give is a pair of Fu Dogs; these are protected animals and a very thoughtful gift. Fu Dogs are extremely powerful protection for a home or business; you will find most homes or business in China complemented by a pair either inside or outside. They come in all shapes and sizes and some of the homes I have visited all over the world display some of the most magnificent pairs I have seen especially the ones in Asia. Probably the most impressive is from Beijing’s Forbidden City, these are really amazing to see. If you follow this link you will find more details on Fu Dogs and the correct way to display them which is very important.
- In general, gifts are given at Chinese New Year, weddings, births and birthdays.
- The Chinese love food and a food basket will always make a nice gift. ·
- Never give scissors, letter openers, knives or other cutting tools as they indicate the cutting of a relationship.
- Do not give clocks, white handkerchiefs, a stork or crane or straw sandals as they are associated with funerals and death. The word for the clock in Chinese sounds similar to the expression ‘the end of life’ and should never be given as a gift.
- Do not give flowers, as many Chinese associate these with death.
- Do not wrap gifts in white, blue or black paper.
- Give gifts of money in a red envelope called Ang Pow red envelopes also known as “red packets” “Ang Pow” “laisee” “lai see” “hung bao” or “Hung-Bao”. They are considered extremely auspicious to receive as a gift and even more auspicious if they contain money. They are commonly used for Chinese New Year, weddings, birthdays or any other important event.
- Always present gifts with two hands.
- Never present a valuable gift to one person In the presence of other people. This gesture will cause embarrassment, and possibly even problems for the recipient, given the strict rules against bribery in Chinese business culture.
- Gifts are not opened when received.
- Gifts may be refused three times before they are accepted. Each time it’s refused, you as the giver must graciously continue to offer the gift. And once it’s taken, tell the person you’re happy it’s been accepted.
- The gift is offered using both hands and must be gift-wrapped; though it won’t be opened it front of you. It will be set aside and opened later. This tradition eliminates any concern that the recipient’s face might show any disappointment with the gift.
- If you’re presented a gift, follow the same process of refusing it three times then accept it with both hands. You’ll also not open it, but wait until later.
- Never give a pen with red ink as a gift as it indicates severing of relationships.
- Four is an unlucky number so do not give four of anything. Eight is the luckiest number, so giving eight of something brings luck to the recipient and considered very auspicious.
- Giving a talisman to hang beside the main door is considered very lucky to the Chinese, if you click on the picture below you will find more details on talismans, couplets and the Kitchen God.
I love eating in China and most other Asian countries, it is an event and if you are being entertained by a local the experience is so much better. On my Feng Shui travels around the world regardless of what city you are in, the restaurants are very commercial and never a true reflection of what the local food is like, on a recent Feng Shui consultation in Barcelona I was visiting an old client of mine who has lived in Spain for seven years (emigrated from the UK) and even he struggled to find a traditional Spanish restaurant that served a good paella, I wish I had not asked for one as it caused embarrassment for him. The next night we ended up in his local restaurant that was very basic but served the best quality food.
- The Chinese prefer to entertain in public places rather than in their homes, especially when entertaining foreigners.
- If you are invited to their house, consider it a great honour. If you must turn down such an honour, it is considered polite to explain the conflict in your schedule so that your actions are not taken as a slight.
- Arrive on time.
- Remove your shoes before entering the house.
- Bring a small gift but bear in main the list above of offensive gifts.
- Eat well to demonstrate that you are enjoying the food and do not eat all of your meal. If you eat all of your meal, the Chinese will assume you did not receive enough food and are still hungry.
- Learn to use chopsticks.
- Wait to be told where to sit. The guest of honour is normally given
a seat facing the door.
- The host begins eating first.
- You should try everything that is offered to you.
- Never eat the last piece from the serving tray.
- Be observant to other peoples’ needs.
- Chopsticks should be returned to the chopstick rest after every
few bites and when you drink or stop to speak.
- The host offers the first toast.
- Do not put bones in your bowl. Place them on the table or in a special
bowl for that purpose.
- Hold the rice bowl close to your mouth while eating.
- Do not be offended if a Chinese person makes slurping or belching
sounds; it merely indicates that they are enjoying their food.
- Never place your chopsticks straight up in your bowl. By placing your sticks upright in your bowl you will remind your host of joss sticks which connotes death.
- Do not drop the chopsticks it is considered bad luck.
Tipping is becoming more commonplace, especially with younger workers although older workers still consider it an insult. Different parts of Asia have different rules, in Singapore generally, you do not tip at all whereas in Malaysia it is considered rude not too.
Business Etiquette Basics
Relationships & Communication:
It is imperative when opening your greeting for the most senior person to introduce themselves and then the next senior person, working down the rank in your company. Even when Chinese people visit Western countries, they will mostly walk in the room with the most senior person leading the party. This custom is a matter of respect; this word is probably the most important in Chinese culture.
- The Chinese don’t like doing business with companies they don’t know, so working through a go-between is crucial. This could be an individual or an organization that can make a formal introduction and vouch for the reliability of your company.
- Before arriving in China send materials (written in Chinese) that describe your company, its history, and literature about your products and services.
- The Chinese often use intermediaries to ask questions that they would prefer not to make directly.
- Business relationships are built formally after the Chinese get to know you.
- Be very patient. It takes a considerable amount of time and is bound up with enormous bureaucracy.
- The Chinese see foreigners as representatives of their company rather than as individuals.
- Rank is extremely important in business relationships and you must
keep rank differences in mind when communicating.
- Gender bias is non-existent in business.
- Never lose sight of the fact that communication is official, especially in dealing with someone of higher rank. Treating them too informally, especially in front of their peers, may well ruin a potential deal.
- The Chinese prefer face-to-face meetings rather than written or telephonic communication.
- Meals and social events are not the places for business discussions. There is a demarcation between business and socializing in China, so try to be careful not to intertwine the two.
- Do not point when speaking.
- To point do not use your index finger, use an open palm.
- It is considered improper to put your hand in your mouth.
- Do not take the Chinese nod for agreement; it’s only a sign that they are listening attentively.
There are some useful Chinese expressions easy to learn:
|Thank you||Xie Xie|
|Cheers (toast)||Gan pei|
Business Meeting Etiquette:
- Appointments are necessary and, if possible, should be made between one-to-two months in advance, preferably in writing.
- If you do not have a contact within the company, use an intermediary to arrange a formal introduction. Once the introduction has been made, you should provide the company with information about your company and what you want to accomplish at the meeting.
- You should arrive at meetings on time or slightly early. The Chinese view punctuality as a virtue. Arriving late is an insult and could negatively affect your relationship
- Pay great attention to the agenda as each Chinese participant has his or her own agenda that they will attempt to introduce.
- Send an agenda before the meeting so your Chinese colleagues have the chance to meet with any technical experts prior to the meeting. Discuss the agenda with your translator/intermediary prior to submission.
- Each participant will take an opportunity to dominate the floor for lengthy periods without appearing to say very much of anything that actually contributes to the meeting. Be patient and listen. There could be subtle messages being transmitted that would assist you in allaying fears of on-going association.
- Meetings require patience. Mobile phones ring frequently and conversations tend to be boisterous. Never ask the Chinese to turn off their mobile phones as this causes you both to lose face.
- Guests are generally escorted to their seats, which are in descending order of rank. Senior people generally sit opposite senior people from the other side.
- It is imperative that you bring your own interpreter, especially if you plan to discuss legal or extremely technical concepts as you can brief the interpreter prior to the meeting.
- Written material should be available in both English and Chinese, using simplified characters. Be very careful about what is written. Make absolutely certain that written translations are accurate and cannot be misinterpreted.
- Visual aids are useful in large meetings and should only be done with black type on white background. Colours have special meanings and if you are not careful, your colour choice could work against you.
- Presentations should be detailed and factual and focus on long-term benefits. Be prepared for the presentation to be a challenge.
- Women should avoid high heels and short-sleeved blouses. The Chinese frown on women who display too much.
- Men and women wear jeans. However, jeans are not acceptable for business meetings.
- Revealing clothing for women is considered offensive to Chinese businessmen.
- Do not use large hand movements. The Chinese do not speak with their hands. Your movements may be distracting to your host.
- Only senior members of the negotiating team will speak. Designate the most senior person in your group as your spokesman for the introductory functions.
- Business negotiations occur at a slow pace.
- Be prepared for the agenda to become a jumping off point for other discussions.
- Chinese are non-confrontational. They will not overtly say ‘no’, they will say ‘they will think about it’ or ‘they will see’.
- Chinese negotiations are process-oriented. They want to determine if relationships can develop to a stage where both parties are comfortable doing business with the other.
- Decisions may take a long time, as they require careful review and consideration.
- Under no circumstances should you lose your temper or you will lose face and irrevocably damage your relationship.
- Do not use high-pressure tactics. You might find yourself outmanoeuvred.
- Business is hierarchical. Decisions are unlikely to be made during the meetings you attend.
- The Chinese are shrewd negotiators.
- Your starting price should leave room for negotiation.
- At the end of a meeting, you are expected to leave before your Chinese
Dress styles are changing quickly in today’s China. Most City Chinese will wear a western-style suit and tie for a business and even less formal meeting. It is best for foreigners to dress formally. Women should avoid low necklines and hemlines that rise above the knee. Jewellery will be noticed; modest gold jewellery and a quality watch and shoes will count in your favour. However, avoid overly expensive jewellery or showy ornaments.
- Business attire is conservative and unpretentious.
- Men should wear dark coloured, conservative business suits.
- Women should wear conservative business suits or dresses with a high neckline.
- Women should wear flat shoes or shoes with very low heels.
- Bright colours should be avoided.
Business cards, called name cards (“Ming Pian”) by the Chinese, are presented when everyone first meets. They should be given and received with both hands. Although common practise in most western countries, never slide your card on the table to your Chinese contact, it is viewed as extremely disrespectful. Never toss or “deal” your business card across the table, as this is also considered extremely impolite. Receive a business card with both hands and scan it immediately. Then lay the card in front of you on the table. It is demeaning to put someone’s card directly into your pocket without looking at it first.
- Business cards are exchanged after the initial introduction.
- Have one side of your business card translated into Chinese using simplified Chinese characters that are printed in gold ink since gold is an auspicious colour.
- Your business card should include your title. If your company is the oldest or largest in your country, that fact should be on your card as well.
- Hold the card in both hands when offering it, the Chinese side facing the recipient.
- Examine a business card before putting it on the table next to you or in a business card case.
- Never write on someone’s card unless so directed and please try not to drop the card as this is considered very inauspicious to the business relationship.
We have also written an article on giving and receiving Ang Pow red envelopes and the correct way of giving and receiving a business card, follow this link for more details.
Facts and Statistics
Location: Eastern Asia bordering Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km
Capital City: Beijing – coordinates: 39 56 N, 116 24 E. In spite of its vast size, all of China falls within one time zone.
Time difference: Standard time zone: +8 hours ahead of London UK and +13 hours ahead of Washington, DC.
Climate: The weather is incredibly diverse; tropical in south to sub arctic in north.
Population: 1,321,851,888(over 1.3 billion) (July 2007 EST.) China is the most populous nation on earth.
Area – comparative: Most western websites claim that China is slightly smaller than the US although most Chinese websites claim that China is slightly larger than the US, hmmm, heard this story before, mines bigger than yours. I really do not know which is true but they are roughly about the same give or take.
Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%.
Religions: Daoism (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 1%-2%, Christian 3%-4%.
Government: Communist state.
Flag of China:
China’s national flag was adopted in September 1949. This flag was first flown in Tiananmen Square on October 1, 1949 the day of the founding of the People’s Republic of China. The rectangular flag has a red field with five golden-yellow stars (each with five points) in the upper left corner. The star on the left is larger than the other four. The red colour of the flag symbolizes revolution. The large star symbolizes the Communist Party (which rules China) and the smaller stars represent the people of China.
Map of China
Geography – note: Fourth largest country in the world after Russia, Canada, and US; Mount Everest is on the border with Nepal and is the world’s tallest peak.
Chinese New Year (according to the lunar calendar) starts on the 31st January 2014 and is celebrated by the Chinese all over the world. It heralds new beginnings and a fresh start.
At a social level, it is very much a family affair, a time of reunion, forgiveness, sharing and thanksgiving. In 2014 Chinese New Year falls on Friday, January 31st 2014 at 05.40 (am) China (Lunar calendar), Thursday 30th 21.40 the United Kingdom, Thursday 30th 13.40 California USA, and Thursday 30th 22.40 Barcelona Spain. Due to time differences around the world, Chinese New Year will fall what appears to be a day early in some countries.
Below you will find a Chinese New Year world time converter 2014 table to assist you. This is the date you celebrate the Chinese New Year with Ang Pow, fireworks etc and not the date you use to place your 2014 cures and enhancers in Feng Shui (February 4th 2014).
The Chinese Language
Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
Conventional long form: People’s Republic of China
Conventional short form: China
Local long form: Zhonghua Renmin
Local short form: Zhongguo
Are you prepared for 2021?
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